The first antibiotics
English microbiologist Alexander Fleming in 1929 discovered the first antibiotic – penicillin. This was one of the most significant discoveries of the XX century. The new era has begun in biology and medicine – the era of antibiotics. They were treated as a panacea, as they coped with the treatment of diseases previously considered hopeless.
The term “antibiotic” is derived from two Greek words: “anti” – “against” and “bios” – life. It was first proposed by Professor Waxman in 1942. (Although the mold used in Greece and ancient Rome, only then they were not called antibiotics.) Antibiotics – drugs of microbial, animal or vegetable origin selectively inhibit the vital activity of certain genera and species of microorganisms. This is the most numerous group of drugs. Thus, in Russia today is used more than 200 drugs (not counting analogs). They are grouped according to certain qualities, despite the differences in chemical structure and mechanism of action. There are antibiotics with antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral and antitumor activity.
Specificity of antibiotics is that, unlike most other drugs, they operate at the cellular level. However, their activity is not constant: it decreases with time. This is caused by the formation of drug – the inevitable biological phenomenon). The fact that bacteria are somehow “similar” to rats, which had already become accustomed to the poison known to them and then eat these poisons like a harmless powder. And another trouble: microorganisms that become resistant to certain antibiotics go on to infect other people, so to deal with them need is a new antibiotic.
The first antibiotics were very simple and had too many shortcomings, namely: serious side effects, many contraindications, and the need for frequent and prolonged use of drugs, fast habituation. For decades, many countries carried out intensive work to create new generations of antibiotics. In recent years the pharmaceutical market out products of the XXI century, which cause far fewer side effects and, more importantly, “do not give the addiction. Allow them enough to only 2 times a day, as their effect lasts for 12 hours (intravenously – 8 hours). Those are antibiotics such as Maxipim, Meron, Rocephin and others.
Antibiotics help us get rid of many diseases, and often we ourselves “prescribe” a treatment. But they are far from harmless, as do most other drugs. The information provided on our site, help you understand when antibiotics – medication, and when – the poison, and avoid mistakes in their application. By its chemical structure of antibiotics are divided into 12 main groups. Therefore, we will consider antibiotics for groups to get a clearer picture of their action.